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Aptitude Interview Questions And Answers 
76.
A 20 litre mixture of milk and water contains milk and water in the ratio 3 : 2. 10 litres of the mixture is removed and replaced with pure milk and the operation is repeated once more. At the end of the two removal and replacement, what is the ratio of milk and water in the resultant mixture?
Solution:
The 20 litre mixture contains milk and water in the ratio of 3 : 2. Therefore, there will be 12 litres of milk in the mixture and 8 litres of water in the mixture.
Step 1. When 10 litres of the mixture is removed, 6 litres of milk is removed and 4 litres of water is removed. Therefore, there will be 6 litres of milk and 4 litres of water left in the container. It is then replaced with pure milk of 10 litres. Now the container will have 16 litres of milk and 4 litres of water.
Step 2. When 10 litres of the new mixture is removed, 8 litres of milk and 2 litres of water is removed. The container will have 8 litres of milk and 2 litres of water in it. Now 10 litres of pure milk is added. Therefore, the container will have 18 litres of milk and 2 litres of water in it at the end of the second step.Therefore, the ratio of milk and water is 18 : 2 or 9 : 1. 
77.
A merchant mixes three varieties of rice costing Rs.20/kg, Rs.24/kg and Rs.30/kg and sells the mixture at a profit of 20% at Rs.30 / kg. How many kgs of the second variety will be in the mixture if 2 kgs of the third variety is there in the mixture?
Sol:
If the selling price of mixture is Rs.30/kg and the merchant makes a profit of 20%, then the cost price of the mixture = = Rs.25/kg.
We need to find out the ratio in which the three varieties are mixed to obtain a mixture costing Rs.25 /kg.
Let variety A cost Rs.20/kg, variety B cost Rs.24 / kg and variety C cost Rs.30/kg. The mean desired price falls between B and C.
Step 1: Find out the ratio QA : QC using alligation rule.
Step 2: Find out the ratio QB : QC using alligation rule.
Step 3: QC is found by adding the value of QC in step 1 and step 2 = 1 + 1 = 2
Therefore, the required ratio = 1 : 5 : 2
If there are 2 kgs of the third variety in the mixture, then there will be 5 kgs of the second variety in the mixture.

78.
Two trains A and B start simultaneously from stations X and Y towards each other respectively. After meeting at a point between X and Y, train A reaches station Y in 9 hours and train B reaches station X in 4 hours from the time they have met each other. If the speed of train A is 36 km/hr, what is the speed of train B?
Solution:
The ratio of the speed of the two trains A and B is given by
, where b is the time taken by train B to reach its destination after meeting train A and a is the time taken by train A to reach its destination after meeting train B.
In this case,
Speed of train B = * Speed of train A = * 36 = 54 km/hr 

