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INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES
Definition, scope and importance – need for public awareness – forest resources: use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems – mineral resources: use effects on forests and tribal people – water resources: use and over-utilization of surface and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies – food resources: world food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies – energy resources: growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies – land resources: land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification – role of an individual in conservation of natural resources – equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles. Field study of local area to document environmental assets – river / forest / grassland / hill / mountain.
ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY
Concept of an ecosystem – structure and function of an ecosystem – producers, consumers and decomposers – energy flow in the ecosystem – ecological succession – food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids – introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the (a) forest ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) – introduction to biodiversity – definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity – biogeographical classification of India – value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – biodiversity at global, national and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – hot-spots of biodiversity – threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts – endangered and endemic species of India – conservation of biodiversity: in-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
Field study of common plants, insects, birds
Field study of simple ecosystems – pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
Definition – causes, effects and control measures of: (a) air pollution (b) water pollution (c) soil pollution (d) marine pollution (e) noise pollution (f) thermal pollution (g) nuclear hazards – solid waste management: causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes – role of an individual in prevention of pollution – pollution case studies – disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides. Field study of local polluted site – urban / rural / industrial / agricultural
SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
From unsustainable to sustainable development – urban problems related to energy – water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management – resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns, case studies – environmental ethics: issues and possible solutions – climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies. – wasteland reclamation – consumerism and waste products – environment production act – air (prevention and control of pollution) act – water (prevention and control of pollution) act – wildlife protection act – forest conservation act – issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation – public awareness.
HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Population growth, variation among nations – population explosion – family welfare programme – environment and human health – human rights – value education – hiv / aids – women and child welfare – role of information technology in environment and human health – case studies.
1. Gilbert M.Masters, “Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science”, Pearson Education Pvt., Ltd., Second Edition, ISBN 81-297-0277-0, 2004.
2. Miller T.G. Jr., “Environmental Science”, Wadsworth Publishing Co.
1. Bharucha Erach, “The Biodiversity of India”, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad India.
2. Townsend C., Harper J and Michael Begon, “Essentials of Ecology”, Blackwell Science.
3. Trivedi R.K. and P.K. Goel, “Introduction to Air Pollution”, Techno-Science Publications.
4. Trivedi R.K., “Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules, Guidelines, Compliances and Standards”, Vol. I and II, Enviro Media.
5. Cunningham, W.P.Cooper, T.H.Gorhani, “Environmental Encyclopedia”, Jaico Publ., House, Mumbai, 2001.
6. Wager K.D. “Environmental Management”, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA, 1998.
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